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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

BACK PUNCHING

Using a pritchel to open or enlarge nail holes, done from the hoof surface of a shoe.


BACKING-UP THE TOE

The removal of horn from the hoof wall on the dorsal surface of the toe. Sometime necessary to balance the hoof.


BACKWARDS SHOE

A conventional horseshoe applied with the heels of the shoe at the toe of the hoof. This usually requires that extra nail holes be made. The backwards shoe acts as a rockered toe eggbar shoe. a.k.a: Reverse shoe; open toe egg bar; Napoleon shoe.


BAG OF MARBLES

Multiple bone fractures in a small area.


BALANCE

A condition which exists when the weight placed on each leg of the horse is distributed equally over the foot of that leg. A horse’s foot is said to be in balance when viewed from the front or rear if the medial axis of the leg, pastern, and foot are in a straight line. The foot is said to be in balance when viewed from the side of the medial axis of the pastern coincides with the axis of the foot which is parallel to the hoof wall at the toe.


BARCUS

Brand of shoeing stocks from around 1865 to around 1930.


BAR SHOE

Any horseshoe which is not interrupted by an opening between the heels. Various forms of bar shoe are used to increase support surface, apply pressure, prevent pressure, or stabilize the shoe.


BAR STOCK

The metal stock from which handmade horseshoes are forged. Typical steel horseshoe barstock is 5/16″ by 3/4″, but many other sizes are also used. Barstock is generally purchased by the linar foot.


BARS

A support structure found in the sole, starting at the heel and ending at the point of the frog.


BASAL

Base or ground surface, part of hoof farthest from the coronary surface of the hoof at any given point.


BASAL CRACK

A sandcrack which starts at the ground surface and splits upward.


BASE NARROW

Wider at the chest than at the feet.


BASE WIDE

Wider at the feet than at the chest.


BASEMENT MEMBRANE

The delicate, microscopically thin layer of connective tissue between the secondary horny and secondary sensitive laminae within the equine hoof. The basement membrane is uniform, smooth and unbroken in healthy hooves, but breaks down and tatters with the onset of laminitis.


BEAR FOOT

See: Club Foot.


BENCH KNEE

A limb conformation defect in which the leg fits somewhat to the outside of, rather than directly below, the forearm at the knee. a.k.a: Offset knee.


BEVEL

The point of the nail.


BIFURCATE

[from the Latin bi, twice and furca, fork]: To separate, split, or divide.


BIG KNEE

See: Popped Knee.


BILATERAL

On both sides. Usually means both hooves of a pair.


BIOTIN

A colorless crystalline B complex vitamin C10-H16-N2-O3-S, essential for the activity of many enzyme systems and found in large quantities in liver, egg yolk, milk, and yeast. Biotin is popularly believed to be beneficial to hoof growth and quality, and is often included in horse feed supplements.


BIT

A mouth piece used for guiding a horse.


BLACKSMITH

A crafter of iron and steel. This term is sometimes inaccurately used as a synonym for farrier. Because modern farriers craft steel horseshoes, they are indeed blacksmiths. But not all backsmiths are farriers.


BLEMISH

A cosmetic flaw.


BLIND GUT

See: Cecum.


BLOCKED HEELS

(1.) The heels of a horseshoe which have been folded down against the ground surface of the shoe. This can be done to raise the heels or to act as a heel calk. On thin shoes, the heel may be folded twice. (2.) Large, square heel calks on manufactured racehorse shoes are sometimes called blocks, especially if the other heel is a sticker.


BLOOD SPAVIN

An enlargement of the saphenous vein on the medial side of hock.


BLOWING THE ANVIL

See: Anvil Shooting.


BLUGRASS LAMINITIS SYMPOSIUM

See: BLS.


BLS

Bluegrass Laminitis Symposium. A large annual conference of farriers and veterinarians covering a wide array of hoofcare and lameness topics. Sponsored by the International Equine Podiatry Center and held in the State of Kentucky, USA.


BORIUM

Grains or chips of Tungsten Carbide in a steel or brass matrix. Applied to the ground surface of a horseshoe in the forge, with an acetylene torch, or with an arc welder; borium provides traction on hard, slick footing such as pavement. It also increases the wear life of the shoe.


BOW LEGGED

See: Carpus Varus.


BOWED TENDON

Damage or rupture of the sheath of a tendon, most often the SDF of a foreleg. Bowed tendons usually occur in performance horses during hard exertion. a.k.a: Tendinitis; peritendinitis; tendosynovitis; tendovaginitis.


BOXED

Describes a horseshoe which has the outer edge of the hoof-facing side rounded or beveled. This is done to prevent the exposed edge of the full-fit shoe from being pulled off should it be stepped on by another hoof’s shoe.


BRANCH

The portion of the shoe that curves back from the toe towards the heel.


BRAZE

To join metal surfaces using brass, bronze, or copper as a filler material.


BREAK OVER

This occurs during that part of the stride when the limb is beginning to move forward and the anterior portion of the hoof leaves the ground. Break over point is that place on the ground surface of the dorsal wall and sole around which the limb rotates as the hoof leaves the ground. An unbalanced hoof either because of incorrect trimming/shoeing , or hoof or limb pathologies will not have the correct break over which leads to a host of problems, both actual and potential. It is also important to note that proper heel support is a major player in this equation.


BRIDGE

The balance point between the anterior and posterior halves of the well-shod foot. Located halfway between the toe and the bulbs of the heel. The term was created by Dave Duckett.


BROKEN BACK

A broken back pastern axis is one where one of the phalanges is at a steeper angle than the one below it.


BROKEN FORWARD

A broken forward pastern axis is where one of the phalanges is at a lower angle than the one below it.


BROKEN-IN

Refers to an angular limb deformity where a joint is closer to the other limb than it should be.


BROKEN-OUT

Refers to an angular limb deformity where a joint is farther away from the other limb than it should be.


BROTHERHOOD OF WORKING FARRIERS ASSOCIATION

See: B.W. F.A..


BRUISE

The rupturing of blood vessels within sensitive structures resulting from trauma. Hoof bruises often result from the horse stepping on stones. Bruises can also occur in any sensitive structue, including the frog and the bulbs of the heels. a.k.a: Strawberries.


BRUSHING

Interference between paired hooves.


BUCK KNEE

A buck kneed horse’s knees are in front of the vertical.


BUFFALO

Maker of forges and blowers since 1879.


BULBS

Are the starting of the frog which holds the heels together.


BULGE

A lump or bump in the hoof that protrudes from the normal angle.


BURSA

A membrane sac that holds synovial fluid to lubricate moving parts in horse’s legs.Example: Navicular Bursa


BUTTERIS

An ancient tool for trimming horse hooves. Essentially a long, sharp chisel which could be pushed with the farrier’s shoulder. Rarely seen in the U.S. since the 1930s, the butteris is stil common in some parts of the world.


BUTTRESS FOOT

See: Pyramidal disease.


B.W.F.A.

B.W.F.A.: Brotherhood of Working Farriers Association. U.S. based organization of horseshoers. Founded in 1989. Address: 14013 East Hwy. 136, LaFayette, GA 30728


BY

Refers to a horse’s paternal parentage. For example: Discovery is by Display.